【我为师生办实事】炎炎夏日,如何科学制定适合自己的健康运动方案

依据世界卫组(zu)织发(fa)布的(de)(de)(de)《关于身体活动(dong)(dong)和久坐行为(wei)指南(nan)》规(gui)定成年人每(mei)周(zhou)要做(zuo)150min至(zhi)300min中等强(qiang)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)有氧(yang)身体运动(dong)(dong)(如:慢(man)跑、游泳(yong)、骑自行车、爬楼梯),75至(zhi)150分(fen)(fen)钟的(de)(de)(de)高强(qiang)度(du)有氧(yang)身体活动(dong)(dong)(羽毛球(qiu)、篮球(qiu)、滑(hua)冰、滑(hua)雪),或等量的(de)(de)(de)两(liang)种(zhong)运动(dong)(dong)组(zu)合(he)也能获得(de)巨大的(de)(de)(de)健康(kang)受(shou)益。依据《中国(guo)居民(min)膳食(shi)指南(nan)科学研究报告(2021)简本》,每(mei)周(zhou)至(zhi)少(shao)150分(fen)(fen)钟的(de)(de)(de)中等强(qiang)度(du)身体活动(dong)(dong)可以减少(shao)体重(zhong)过度(du)增加的(de)(de)(de)风险,防(fang)止BMI增加,当获得(de)足够量的(de)(de)(de)中高强(qiang)度(du)身体活动(dong)(dong)(>300分(fen)(fen)钟/周(zhou)),可减体重(zhong)并(bing)防(fang)止体重(zhong)反弹(dan),与(yu)适度(du)的(de)(de)(de)饮食(shi)相结合(he),运动(dong)(dong)减肥(fei)还有累加作用。在结合(he)我校师生的(de)(de)(de)实际情况、锻炼习惯及运动(dong)(dong)能力现状,建议(yi)师生参照以下运动(dong)(dong)干预指南(nan),设计个人健康(kang)运动(dong)(dong)方案:

(一)有良好(hao)运(yun)动(dong)经(jing)验和运(yun)动(dong)习惯的师生运(yun)动(dong)量(liang)

通常(chang)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)人(ren)(ren),心脏更(geng)强(qiang)壮,心率较(jiao)(jiao)常(chang)人(ren)(ren)会(hui)慢一些,也更(geng)大。锻(duan)炼时只有(you)(you)(you)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)保(bao)持适宜(yi)(yi),才能(neng)收到较(jiao)(jiao)好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)效果,运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)过小、过大都不(bu)宜(yi)(yi)。过小,则达不(bu)到锻(duan)炼的(de)(de)(de)(de)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de);过大,又超(chao)出了人(ren)(ren)身体所能(neng)承受的(de)(de)(de)(de)限度(du),而每个人(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)体能(neng)都是不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)(de)。通常(chang)用(yong)脉搏进行(xing)测定(ding)来判(pan)断(duan)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)负(fu)(fu)(fu)荷是否适宜(yi)(yi),一般脉搏指数保(bao)持在120次(ci)/分以(yi)下为轻微,140~160次(ci)/分为中(zhong)(zhong)等运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)负(fu)(fu)(fu)荷,170~180次(ci)/分为较(jiao)(jiao)大运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)负(fu)(fu)(fu)荷。中(zhong)(zhong)高(gao)(gao)强(qiang)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)身体活(huo)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)与(yu)全(quan)因(yin)死(si)亡风险呈负(fu)(fu)(fu)相关,且(qie)有(you)(you)(you)剂量(liang)反应关系。有(you)(you)(you)规律的(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)(zhong)高(gao)(gao)强(qiang)度(du)身体活(huo)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),能(neng)够降低(di)全(quan)因(yin)死(si)亡风险14%-35%。因(yin)此建(jian)议师生结(jie)合(he)个人(ren)(ren)身体健康(kang)状况和年(nian)龄(ling)性别特点,将中(zhong)(zhong)低(di)有(you)(you)(you)氧(yang)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)与(yu)中(zhong)(zhong)高(gao)(gao)有(you)(you)(you)氧(yang)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)相结(jie)合(he)。有(you)(you)(you)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)经验和良(liang)好(hao)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)习惯的(de)(de)(de)(de)师生每周完成180分钟的(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)(zhong)等强(qiang)度(du)有(you)(you)(you)氧(yang)+120分钟的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)强(qiang)度(du)有(you)(you)(you)氧(yang)身体活(huo)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。

饭(fan)前运动(dong)(dong)是空(kong)腹运动(dong)(dong),运动(dong)(dong)中(zhong)需(xu)要的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)量(liang)主要靠饮食(shi)中(zhong)摄取来的(de)(de)(de)糖类,当空(kong)腹锻(duan)练时(shi),主要的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)量(liang)来源(yuan)就(jiu)靠脂肪了(le)。中(zhong)等强(qiang)度有氧(yang)锻(duan)炼(lian)时(shi),血液中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)游离脂肪酸会明显增高,脂肪酸肌活动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)来源(yuan)如过量(liang),就(jiu)会出(chu)现损害心肌的(de)(de)(de)“毒物”,引起(qi)心律失(shi)常(chang),甚至导致(zhi)猝死。因此,在空(kong)腹运动(dong)(dong)之前,建议师生们先喝(he)一杯牛奶或适(shi)量(liang)食(shi)用些(xie)易消化的(de)(de)(de)糕点,这样(yang)可减少诱发低血糖症的(de)(de)(de)危险。

(二)久坐、忙碌(liu)、压力大的健康运动量

所有(you)的(de)体育运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)都是有(you)价值的(de),无(wu)论运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)多少,运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)总(zong)比不动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)好。每(mei)(mei)(mei)天30到(dao)40分(fen)钟(zhong)的(de)中到(dao)高强(qiang)(qiang)度体育活(huo)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),可以抵消(xiao)掉10小时(shi)(shi)(shi)久(jiu)坐给(ji)身体带来的(de)负(fu)面影(ying)响(xiang),以降(jiang)低全因(yin)(yin)死(si)亡率。由于相关研究表明久(jiu)坐时(shi)(shi)(shi)间每(mei)(mei)(mei)天增加(jia)1小时(shi)(shi)(shi),心血(xue)管疾(ji)病(bing)发生风险增加(jia)4%,癌症(zheng)增加(jia)1%,全因(yin)(yin)死(si)亡增加(jia)3%。因(yin)(yin)此(ci),建(jian)议存在久(jiu)坐及(ji)学业工作繁(fan)忙,时(shi)(shi)(shi)间紧张(zhang)的(de)师生,在以维持身体健(jian)康、预防疾(ji)病(bing)为主(zhu)要目(mu)标的(de)前提(ti)下(xia),每(mei)(mei)(mei)周至(zhi)少完(wan)成(cheng)三次锻(duan)炼,包含总(zong)共150分(fen)钟(zhong)中低强(qiang)(qiang)度有(you)氧(yang),60分(fen)钟(zhong)全身抗自重(zhong)力量(liang)练习。若采(cai)用每(mei)(mei)(mei)天步(bu)行(xing)的(de)低强(qiang)(qiang)度有(you)氧(yang)锻(duan)炼,建(jian)议没有(you)腰椎及(ji)下(xia)肢关节损伤的(de)师生,每(mei)(mei)(mei)天步(bu)行(xing)6000-8000步(bu)。或(huo)者,每(mei)(mei)(mei)周进行(xing)150至(zhi)300分(fen)钟(zhong)的(de)中等(deng)强(qiang)(qiang)度的(de)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),或(huo)75至(zhi)150分(fen)钟(zhong)的(de)高强(qiang)(qiang)度运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),以抵消(xiao)久(jiu)坐带来的(de)危害。因(yin)(yin)为依(yi)据(ju)最(zui)近1项(xiang)研究(美国国家健(jian)康与营(ying)养(yang)调查,样本量(liang)4840,平均年龄56.8岁(sui))结果(guo)显示(shi),与每(mei)(mei)(mei)天4000步(bu)比较(jiao),每(mei)(mei)(mei)天8000步(bu)可显著(zhu)降(jiang)低全因(yin)(yin)死(si)亡风险51%,每(mei)(mei)(mei)天12000步(bu)可降(jiang)低65%,与步(bu)速快慢无(wu)关。同时(shi)(shi)(shi)在睡眠(mian)不足或(huo)睡眠(mian)质量(liang)欠(qian)佳的(de)时(shi)(shi)(shi)候,可建(jian)立午睡的(de)习惯,便于及(ji)时(shi)(shi)(shi)恢(hui)复精力。如果(guo)老师们不能马上安排(pai)好30到(dao)40分(fen)钟(zhong)的(de)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),那就从(cong)小事做(zuo)(zuo)起,把坐电梯(ti)(ti)改为爬楼梯(ti)(ti)、和孩子(zi)或(huo)宠物玩耍、参加(jia)瑜伽(jia)或(huo)跳舞、做(zuo)(zuo)做(zuo)(zuo)家务、散(san)步(bu)、骑自行(xing)车(che),这些都是人(ren)们可以让自己(ji)更活(huo)跃的(de)方式。

(三)“四结合”运动干(gan)预原则(ze)

由(you)于有氧(yang)(yang)运动和抗组运动(力量练习(xi))对人一生(sheng)的(de)骨密度有积极作(zuo)用,因此建议(yi)师生(sheng)在(zai)日常锻炼健(jian)身(shen)时要(yao)注(zhu)意有氧(yang)(yang)运动与身(shen)体力量训练相结合、全身(shen)动作(zuo)与局部动作(zuo)相结合、主(zhu)观感受与客观心率指标相结合、饮(yin)食营养与睡(shui)眠恢复相结合。

例如:有氧运动与身体力量训练→大步走或(huo)慢跑+靠墙(qiang)半蹲、仰卧卷腹、推胸(xiong);

例如(ru):全身动(dong)作与(yu)局部(bu)动(dong)作相(xiang)结(jie)合(he)→ 开(kai)合(he)跳、四肢爬行动(dong)作、游泳者(zhe)+屈膝提踵、曲臂弯举

例如:主观(guan)感受与客观(guan)心率(lv)指标(biao)相结合(he)→ PRE(自我感觉疲劳程度)、肌肉酸痛(tong)反应+晨脉、运(yun)动心率(lv)(目标(biao)心率(lv)区间(jian)(jian))、恢(hui)复心率(lv)(调控(kong)间(jian)(jian)歇时间(jian)(jian))

例如:膳食(shi)营养与睡(shui)眠状况相结合(he)→ 合(he)理运动膳食(shi)+充足(zu)的睡(shui)眠时长(促(cu)进机体恢(hui)复)

(四)运动是良(liang)药(yao),用药(yao)需(xu)对症

运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)是(shi)(shi)保持身(shen)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)健(jian)康(kang)的(de)(de)良药(yao),但应(ying)因人(ren)(ren)制(zhi)宜,对症下药(yao)。要(yao)想有(you)一(yi)个良好的(de)(de)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti),首先要(yao)有(you)一(yi)个健(jian)康(kang)的(de)(de)心(xin)脏(zang)(zang),心(xin)脏(zang)(zang)作为影响人(ren)(ren)们寿命长短的(de)(de)重要(yao)脏(zang)(zang)器,其(qi)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)好坏十分(fen)(fen)重要(yao)。运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)是(shi)(shi)增强(qiang)心(xin)脏(zang)(zang)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)最好途(tu)径,适当的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)使(shi)你心(xin)脏(zang)(zang)更结实,搏动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)更有(you)力(li),更健(jian)壮。经常锻炼,不但可增强(qiang)心(xin)脏(zang)(zang)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)射血(xue)(xue)(xue)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),促进(jin)血(xue)(xue)(xue)液循环,改(gai)善(shan)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)代谢,同时(shi)还能(neng)(neng)(neng)够(gou)使(shi)血(xue)(xue)(xue)液内(nei)的(de)(de)脂肪酶增加(jia),加(jia)快胆固醇(chun)和(he)(he)脂肪的(de)(de)分(fen)(fen)解和(he)(he)氧(yang)化(hua),从(cong)而达到降(jiang)脂减肥(fei)的(de)(de)效(xiao)(xiao)果(guo);运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)还能(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)低(di)(di)血(xue)(xue)(xue)液中胆固醇(chun)的(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)及(ji)其(qi)在血(xue)(xue)(xue)管(guan)壁(bi)上的(de)(de)沉积,减少动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)脉(mai)硬化(hua)、冠心(xin)病(bing)、脑(nao)出(chu)血(xue)(xue)(xue)和(he)(he)脑(nao)血(xue)(xue)(xue)栓的(de)(de)发病(bing)机率(lv);此(ci)外,适度的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)还能(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)低(di)(di)血(xue)(xue)(xue)糖,缓解和(he)(he)释放(fang)压(ya)力(li),消除(chu)紧张情绪,改(gai)善(shan)睡眠,有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)的(de)(de)恢(hui)(hui)复体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)力(li)和(he)(he)精力(li),故运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)是(shi)(shi)一(yi)味(wei)良药(yao)。可以采用FIIT原则来合理制(zhi)定个人(ren)(ren)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)方案,即(ji)确定足(zu)够(gou)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)的(de)(de)关键因素(su)(F=频率(lv)、I=强(qiang)度、I=时(shi)间、T=类型);此(ci)外温馨提示(shi)广大师生,在开始增加(jia)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)活动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)的(de)(de)初期(qi)或恢(hui)(hui)复体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)能(neng)(neng)(neng)锻炼的(de)(de)初期(qi),人(ren)(ren)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)肌(ji)肉(rou)处(chu)于松弛,中枢神经和(he)(he)内(nei)脏(zang)(zang)器官系统功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)会(hui)比身(shen)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)活动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)量(liang)充足(zu)或体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)能(neng)(neng)(neng)较(jiao)好时(shi)期(qi)稍(shao)差(cha)一(yi)些(xie),所以锻炼应(ying)注意逐(zhu)渐增加(jia)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)负荷,注意运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)前(qian)热身(shen)充分(fen)(fen),特(te)别是(shi)(shi)关节灵活性、身(shen)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)柔韧性欠佳的(de)(de)师生,还要(yao)注意运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)中少量(liang)多次的(de)(de)补水以及(ji)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)后有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)的(de)(de)放(fang)松。

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